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Citing and referencing

Everything you need to know about referencing with links to guides and support.


References for books should include the following elements:  

  • Author (last name, first name);
  • Title (in italics);
  • Edition or volume (if other than 1st);
  • Publisher;
  • Publication date.

In case the author and the editor are not available, the title of the book or the chapter will take the first place in the reference.

N.B. It’s preferable to mention the place of publication for works published before 1900, and in case the publisher is unfamiliar.

Basic format:

Author’s last, first name. Book Title. Edition or volume. Publisher, Publication year.

One author

Perrott, Elizabeth. Effective Teaching: A Practical Guide to Improving Your Teaching. Longman, 1982.

Two authors

Frank, Robert H., and Ben Bernanke. Principles of Microeconomics. 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2007.

More than three authors

Wysocki, Anne Frances, et al. Writing New Media: Theory and Applications for Expanding the Teaching of Composition. Utah State UP, 2004.

Corporate author, author as publisher

National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Environmental Impacts of Wind-Energy Projects. Environmental Impacts of Wind-Energy Projects. National Academies Press, 2007.

Edited book

Peterson, Nancy J., editor. Toni Morrison: Critical and Theoretical Approaches. Johns Hopkins UP, 1997.

Essay or chapter in edited books

References to an essay or chapter in an edited book should include the following elements:

  • Essay or chapter author(s);
  • Essay or chapter title and subtitle;
  • Book title;
  • Book editor(s);
  • Name of the publisher;
  • Publication year;
  • Page numbers (preceded by p. or pp.).

Chapter in an edited book

Levi, Antonia. “The Americanization of Anime and Manga: Negotiating Popular Culture.” Cinema Anime: Critical Engagements with Japanese Animation, edited by Steven T. Brown, Palgrave Macmillan, 2006, pp. 43-63.

E-Book accessed from a database

In case an electronic version was consulted, follow the basic format of referencing a printed book and add the date of online publication (day month year). Website/Database Publisher/Sponsor.

Ahluwalia, V. K and Institute Energy and Resources. Environmental Pollution and Health. The Energy and Resources Institute, 2015. EBSCOhost,