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Citing and referencing

Everything you need to know about referencing with links to guides and support.

In-Text Citations

In APA style, in-text citations are placed within sentences and paragraphs so that it is clear what information is being quoted or paraphrased and whose work is being acknowledged.

Basic Format

All citations should include, at the least, the author's last name(s) and year of publication. 

  • Example: (Family Name, Year of publication)

When using a direct quotation, the page numbers should be included in the citation.

  • Example: (Spencer, 2014, p. 12)

However, when paraphrasing, pages can be omitted.

  • Example: (Spencer, 2014)

Works by a single author 

The last name of the author and the year of publication are inserted in the text at the appropriate point.

From theory on bounded rationality (Simon, 1945).

If the name of the author or the date appears as part of the narrative, cite only missing information in parentheses.

Simon (1945) suggested that …

Works by multiple authors

When a work has two authors, always cite both names every time the reference occurs in the text. In parenthetical citation join the names with an ampersand (&).

As has been shown (Leiter & Maslach, 1998).

In the narrative text, join the names with the word "and."

As Leiter and Maslach (1998) demonstrated …

When a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs.

Kahneman, Knetsch, and Thaler (1991) found that …

In all subsequent citations per paragraph, include only the surname of the first author followed by "et al." (Latin for "and others") and the year of publication.

Kahneman et al. (1991) found that … And … (Kahneman et al., 1991) at the end of the paragraph.

Works with no author

When a work has no author, use the first two or three words of the work's title as your text reference, capitalizing each word. Place the title in quotation marks if it refers to an article, chapter of a book, or web page. Italicize the title if it refers to a book, periodical, brochure, or report.

When temperature changes ("Climate and Weather," 1997).

Citing a secondary source

It is preferable to credit the original work unless it is out of print, or unavailable; in this case, only use the citation for the secondary source.

Credit the source right after the quote by adding the words "as cited in..." to show that you have quoted a secondary source, rather than the original. List the secondary source in your references.

 ...Adams asserts in her book Chicken Little that "without a doubt, the chicken came before the egg" (as cited in Smith, 2005).