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Citing and referencing

Everything you need to know about referencing with links to guides and support.

Theses and Dissertations

References for dissertations and theses should include the following elements: author, year, title, (type of work), name of institution, and location. In case accessed online add retrieved from the name of the database or the URL.

For unpublished work: Identify (Unpublished type of document) in parentheses after the title.

If retrieved from a commercial database; use: Available from the name of the database followed by the Accession or Order No. in parentheses at the end of the reference.


Dissertation/Thesis, Unpublished

El Mawas, O. (2015). The replication of the two hotspots of breakage located within the human common fragile site FRA111D occurs in mid to late phase: A preliminary study (Unpublished master’s thesis). University of Balamand, Lebanon.


Dissertation/Thesis, Accessed From a Commercial Database

Young, R. F. (2007). Crossing boundaries in urban ecology: Pathways to sustainable cities (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses database. (UMI No.327681)

Dissertation/Thesis, Accessed From the Web

Reed, L. A. (2015). Digital dating abuse: Digital media as a gendered context for dating violence in the digital world. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan). Retrieved from