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This guide provides information and resources on copyright law and how it relates to academic activities such as research, teaching, and publication.



Copyright is a form of protection provided by the laws  to the authors of original works including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works.

A work to be protected by the law should fulfill the following criteria:

  • Originality: only work that encompass creativity are protected.
  • Tangibility: works should be translated in a tangible form. The law doesn’t protect ideas that are not written or recorded in some form.

Registration is not a requirement, the work is protected automatically once it is created.



The law gives the owner of copyright the following exclusive rights:

  • To reproduce the work (i.e. to make copies);
  • To create derivative works (i.e. to make a movie from a book or to translate a work into another language);
  • To distribute copies publicly;
  • To perform the work publicly (i.e. a play or movie); and
  • To display the work publicly.

Copyright is not unlimited in scope:



  • The right of the original author to be mentioned (cited) whenever his work is used
  • When you don’t cite, you will not only be accused of Plagiarism, but it is also considered a law infringement/violation.
  • Moral right is is perpetual. While commercial rights expire 50 years after the death of the author, the moral right has not time elapse.



  • The University of Balamand observes and follows the Lebanese law for the Protection of Intellectual Property and international agreements.
  • UOB Libraries encourage users to abide by copyright laws and to understand the Fair Use concept in order to exercise good judgment when fulfilling their educational needs.
  • Library staff has the right to refuse any photocopying request if the request involves copyright infringement.