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This guide provides information and resources on copyright law and how it relates to academic activities such as research, teaching, and publication.


Article 23 of the Lebanese Law on the Protection of Literary and Artistic Property (75 dated 3/4/1999) stipulates that any natural person for personal and private use may copy, record or photocopy a copy of any work protected under this law without the permission or consent of the copyright holder and without payment of any compensation to him, provided that the work has been published in a legitimate manner.

In addition, Article 24 states that the copied part must be minimal. It is not permissible to copy, record or photocopy any work from which a limited number of original copies have been published, or to photocopy a whole book or a large part of it.



The Classroom exception permits you to use copyrighted works without permission as part of classroom instruction at UOB. In the Lebanese Law, educational purpose includes:

  • The right to copy or reproduce articles published in newspapers and magazines or short excerpts of a work (Article 26).
  • Activities carried out by educational institutions provided that the use is limited to the audience enrolled in the activity (Article 34).

You are allowed to use copyrighted materials without obtaining the copyright holder's permission for:

  • A chapter of a book or 10% of a book.
  • One complete article from a journal issue.
  • Maximum 10 pages from a short story, short literary work taken from a volume of short stories.
  • Up to 10% (max. 20 pages) per short book (without chapters), report, pamphlet, standard, or specification.
  • One illustration, chart, diagram, drawing, cartoon, photograph or map up to A4 size.



The fair use doctrine established in the majority of copyright laws and international agreements gives some rights to users to benefit from a work for personal and educational purposes without securing permission from the copyright holder. It is considered a Fair Use when the benefit to the public outweighs the harm done to the rights holder. The decision whether a use is "fair" or not is based on four factors:

  1. the purpose and character of your use;
  2. the nature of the work you are using;
  3. the amount and substantiality you are using; and
  4. the effect of your use on the market for the original.